After a long discussion with the Xbox Support I finally could resolve the issue by getting a refund for the digital Destiny Guardian Edition. Now I can buy that with my wife’s account and then it will run on her XB1 with her Xbox Home. This way any of our family members can play Destiny on any of the two consoles.
That said this does not solve the underlying problem of a house hold with multiple Xbox Ones especially if they are kids. With a Game Disc they can just take it and play it where the disc is put in but not with a digital download. If my kids want to have their own XB1 and one wants to play with me and my wife then we cannot be logged in in that console. Does this now means that I need to create a 2nd Xbox account just to buy and manage Games on that XB1?